Extreme events such as rapid sea ice loss events, melt events on the Greenland ice sheet, and wildfires have also increased and Cold spells lasting more than 15 days have almost completely disappeared from the Arctic since 2000. The warming of the Arctic has also opened it up for shipping, fishing, drilling, and mining which will further worsen the situation. Small Arctic indigenous communities with harvest-based livelihoods are also badly affected by climate change. The rapidly changing cryosphere is affecting ecosystems throughout the Arctic like the drastic drop in caribou and shorebird populations has been witnessed in the Arctic tundra. The effects of Arctic change are felt far beyond the Arctic, including the impacts of global sea-level rise and extreme climatic events. The newest generation of coupled global climate model projections (CMIP6) shows that annual mean surface temperatures in the Arctic will rise to 3.3–10°C above the 1985–2014 average by 2100.